Langkau ke kandungan utama


An umbrella is a folding canopy supported by wooden or metal ribs, which is mounted on a wooden metal or plastic pole[16]. While a canopy is an overhead roof or a structure over which a fabric or metal covering ia attached and able to provide shade or shelter[17]. The main purpose of the umbrella is to provide a shelter to a person from rain or sunlight. Commonly, there are two main categories of the umbrella which are; a fully collapsible umbrella and a non-collapsible umbrella. The fully collapsible umbrella is refer to the umbrella which the metal pole supporting the canopy can be retract. This feature make possible for the umbrella to fit in a handbag. While the non-colapsible umbrella is refer to the umbrella which the support pole cannot retract and only the canopy can be retract. Other than that, umbrella also an be categorized into manually operated and spring loaded automatic which spring open at the press of a button.
The oldest ancient record refer to a collapsible umbrella dates to the year 21 AD, when Wang Man, a Han Dynasty official had one designed for a ceremonial four-wheeled carriage[18]. The 2nd century commentator, Fu Qian added that this collapsible umbrella of Wang Man's carriage had bendable joints which enable them to be extended or retracted[19].
In Persia, the umbrella is repeteadly found in the thecarved work of Persepolis and Sir John Malcom has an article on the subject in his 1815 “History of Persia”. In some sculptures, the figure of a king appears attended by a servant, who carries over his head an umbrella, with stretchers and runner complete[20].
The first lightweight folding umbrella in Europe was introduced in 1710 by a Paris merchant named Jean Marius. It could be opened and closed in the same way as modern umbrellas, and weighed less than one kilogram. Marius received from the King the exclusive right to produce folding umbrellas for five years. A model was purchased by the Princess Palatine in 1712, and she enthused about it to her aristocratic friends, making it an essential fashion item for Parisiennes. In 1759, a French sciencetist named Navarre presented new design to the French academy of Sciences for an umbrella combined with a cane. Pressing a small button on the side of the cane opened the umbrella. Then, the use of this latest design of umbrella became widespread in Paris. By 1808, there were seven shops making and selling umbrella in Paris; one shop, Sagnier on rue des Vielles- Haudriettes, received the first patent given for an invention in France for a new model of umbrella[21].
The use of the umbrella wan uncommon in England during the earlier half of the Eighteenth century. This is evident from the comment made by General James Wolfe, when writing from Paris in 1752; he speaks of the use of umbrellas for protection from the sun and rain, and wonders why a similar practise did not occur in England. However, in year 1788 the use of umbrella have been accepted as it can be seen when a London newspaper advertises thesale of 'improved and pocket umbrella, on steel frames with every other kind of common umbrella. During Victorian Era, the umbrella had frames of wood or baleed, but these devices were expensives and hard to fold when wet. Then, in year 1852, Samuel Fox invented the steel-ribbed umbrella in 1852[22].
The modern design of umbrella have a great difference compare to the early design. The modern design usually employ a telescoping steel trunk and use new material such as cotton, plastic film and nylon to replace the original silk. In Vienna, in 1928, Slawa Horowitz, a student has developed a prototype for an improved compact foldable umbrella for which she received a patent on 19 September 1929[23]. In 1969, Bradford Ed philips, the owner of Totes Incorporated of Loveland, Ohio obtained a patent for his “working folding umbrella”[24].
Umbrella are now a consumer product with a large global market. As of 2008, most umbrella worldwide are made in China, mostly in the Guandong, Fujian, and Zhejiang. Umbrella continue to be actively developed. In the United State, as of 2008, the United State Patent Office has registered 3000 active patents on umbrella-related inventions.
In 2005, Gerwin Hoogendoorn, a Dutch industril design student of the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, invented an aerodynamically streamlined storm umbrella (with a similar shape as a stealth plane) which can stand wind force up to 100 km/h and won't turn inside-out like a regular umbrella. This umbrella also equipped with so-called 'eyesavers' which protect others from being accidentally wounded by the tips[25]. Hoogendoorn's storm umbrella was nominated for an won several design award[26] and was featured on Good Morning America[27]. 
References :
 [16] “Umbrella” WIKIPEDIA.
(Avalaible at:
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

[17] “Canopy (building)” WIKIPEDIA.
(Avalaible at:
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

[18] Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2: Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. Page 70
(Avalaible at:
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

[19] Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2: Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. Page 70–71.
(Avalaible at:
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

[20] Sangster, William, 1808–1888. Umbrellas and Their History. London: Cassell, Petter, and Galpin [1871]. Available online as Gutenberg etext 6674
(Avalaible at:
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)
[21] Fierro, Alfred, Histoire et Dictionnaire de Paris, (1996), Robert Laffont, ISBN 2-221-07862-4
(Avalaible at:
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

[22] "The Times". 13 February 1788: 3
(Avalaible at:
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

[23] Powerhouse Museum. "Prototype umbrella". Powerhouse Museum, Australia.
(Avalaible at:
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

[24] About Us, Totes-Isotoner Corporation
(Avalaible at:
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

[25]  Dossier SENZ umbrella, Delft University of Technology (WebCite mirror)
(Avalaible at:
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

(Avalaible at:
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

(Avalaible at:
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016) 

Catatan popular daripada blog ini


im officially 22 years old now i seriouslt did not know what to feel its not like during my ten years ago where im feeling excited to celebrate my birthday nowafay im not felt it anymore its felt like a normal day where i need to do my chores and also need to solve my life's problem
well then if i think back that I already 22 it make me realize there are lots of things that I need to do and need to accomplish if i make my mother as my benchmarking im still far away to get at a same level like her at least my mother when she's 22 she had found her other half means she already married with my father
meanwhile, im still nowhere im still finding the purpose of my life still try to rule out myself and im still far away from finding the other half of me
22 its like a magic number where ur think that u are big enough to make a big decision for ur life but u know deep in ur heart u still confused with ur choice
22  make me think harder than before lots of my friend already have their…


time ngah wat blogging walking...aku jumpa satu nukilan yang memang menarik and very funnylah...aku tak tau nak cakap...memang tak terluahlah....aku rasa nak gelak jer...
first time aku baca memang mencuit hati...aku tertarik betullah naletak kat blog aku...walau nukilannya sangat funny tapi aku rasa banyak pengajaran yang aku dapat..
apa ye bezanya hubby, darling and sweetheart yer...tertanya=tanya gak aku mase nengot tajuk tuh.... walau dengan penuh sinis dier cuba terangkan aper bezanya tapi memang banyak maksud dalamannya....renung-renungkanlah dan selamat bergelak..hahaha..
nukilan ni lansung takder kaitan dengan aku nyer feeling wat masa nih..jangan salah paham ok...

dulu i benci..
sebab u budak lagi..
umor kite lari..
i takut tak serasi..
tapi i bole mati..
bile u takde kat sisi..
baru i akui..
memang i cintakan hubby..
nak wat camne lagi..
ngaku je la serah diri..

bile u ajak dating..
i gelak guling-guling..
sampai i jadi pening..
i tengok orang keliling..
tapi u tak ambik pusin…


apakah itu.. seekor binatangkah atau nama makanan yang sangat enak
actuallty PALAPES is standing for Pasukan Latihan Pegawai Simpanan
and i had joined PALAPES UDARA or its comercial name is Air Force
Palapes di Usm terdiri daripada tiga jenis iaitu Palapes Darat, Palapes laut
dimana kedua-duanya berpusat di USM campus induk
manakala Palapes Udara pula berpusat di USM campus kejuruteraan
kenapa aku terpikir nak masuk yek...
actually since aku kat matriks lagi
aku dah pasang angan2 nak join Palapes ni
yelah seronok mendengar cerita dari Cikgu Fadhilah
tambahan pula pelbagai perkara baru aku boleh balajar
before aku disahkan senagai salah satu ahli Palapes
pelbagai prosedur yang perlu dilakukan
yalah palapes nih bukan calang2 skuad
dengar nama penuh pun ngerikan betul tak....
selepas menerima surat panggilan
kami diminta hadir ke kompleks sukan
untuk menjalani ujian kecergasan
alah macam ujian yang kita selalu buat dekat sekolah time PJ dulu
nasib baiklah aku baru ba…


This just humble tips that I initially wanna share with my lovely sister and her friends. (for convenience , I will refer my sister and her friends as my students from now and onward). This slides I re share as a reference for them and initially taken from my slides when I did some explanation to them in my class. The tips in the slides were summary for what I had experienced and also from some latest input that I got from the expert. For a record, I'm not a teacher because I don't have any certificate but I just had my experiences as a Band 4 scorer in MUET. In addition, the tips I gathered for my students where most of them did not have a proper English education and I try my best to share tips that easily to understand and follow. 
Because I'm afraid that some of my students did not understand the slides, I will try to explain in bilingual for their sake. 

I'm pretty sure that most of my students did not watch this kind of drama because I did not get any response w…


Dear Mira, you are the only one who knows how truly crazy I am. You know me out and in. We have met when I am still an innocent girl (you have to admit it ) before I experienced that so called "culture shock" during our matriculation life. You know how drastically I changed. You know how crazy I can be literally. You know how havoc I can be. You know how moody I can be. But you never afraid of it. Instead, you help me to control my craziness and my mood swing. And thanks to you, I always save myself from a big humiliation. I don't know whether you still remember those moments. The recent one, surely the call that you receive on 4 am. When you strongly reject my crazy intention to make my confession. Fuhh, I really owed you the big one. 

Dear Mira, if one day, you and I never spoke to each other anymore, may ALLAH forbid it, I have to ask a lawyer to interdict you because you know lots of my secrets. Hehehehehehe. Just kidding. A million memories, thousand jokes (especia…