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HISTORY OF UMBRELLA


An umbrella is a folding canopy supported by wooden or metal ribs, which is mounted on a wooden metal or plastic pole[16]. While a canopy is an overhead roof or a structure over which a fabric or metal covering ia attached and able to provide shade or shelter[17]. The main purpose of the umbrella is to provide a shelter to a person from rain or sunlight. Commonly, there are two main categories of the umbrella which are; a fully collapsible umbrella and a non-collapsible umbrella. The fully collapsible umbrella is refer to the umbrella which the metal pole supporting the canopy can be retract. This feature make possible for the umbrella to fit in a handbag. While the non-colapsible umbrella is refer to the umbrella which the support pole cannot retract and only the canopy can be retract. Other than that, umbrella also an be categorized into manually operated and spring loaded automatic which spring open at the press of a button.
The oldest ancient record refer to a collapsible umbrella dates to the year 21 AD, when Wang Man, a Han Dynasty official had one designed for a ceremonial four-wheeled carriage[18]. The 2nd century commentator, Fu Qian added that this collapsible umbrella of Wang Man's carriage had bendable joints which enable them to be extended or retracted[19].
In Persia, the umbrella is repeteadly found in the thecarved work of Persepolis and Sir John Malcom has an article on the subject in his 1815 “History of Persia”. In some sculptures, the figure of a king appears attended by a servant, who carries over his head an umbrella, with stretchers and runner complete[20].
The first lightweight folding umbrella in Europe was introduced in 1710 by a Paris merchant named Jean Marius. It could be opened and closed in the same way as modern umbrellas, and weighed less than one kilogram. Marius received from the King the exclusive right to produce folding umbrellas for five years. A model was purchased by the Princess Palatine in 1712, and she enthused about it to her aristocratic friends, making it an essential fashion item for Parisiennes. In 1759, a French sciencetist named Navarre presented new design to the French academy of Sciences for an umbrella combined with a cane. Pressing a small button on the side of the cane opened the umbrella. Then, the use of this latest design of umbrella became widespread in Paris. By 1808, there were seven shops making and selling umbrella in Paris; one shop, Sagnier on rue des Vielles- Haudriettes, received the first patent given for an invention in France for a new model of umbrella[21].
The use of the umbrella wan uncommon in England during the earlier half of the Eighteenth century. This is evident from the comment made by General James Wolfe, when writing from Paris in 1752; he speaks of the use of umbrellas for protection from the sun and rain, and wonders why a similar practise did not occur in England. However, in year 1788 the use of umbrella have been accepted as it can be seen when a London newspaper advertises thesale of 'improved and pocket umbrella, on steel frames with every other kind of common umbrella. During Victorian Era, the umbrella had frames of wood or baleed, but these devices were expensives and hard to fold when wet. Then, in year 1852, Samuel Fox invented the steel-ribbed umbrella in 1852[22].
The modern design of umbrella have a great difference compare to the early design. The modern design usually employ a telescoping steel trunk and use new material such as cotton, plastic film and nylon to replace the original silk. In Vienna, in 1928, Slawa Horowitz, a student has developed a prototype for an improved compact foldable umbrella for which she received a patent on 19 September 1929[23]. In 1969, Bradford Ed philips, the owner of Totes Incorporated of Loveland, Ohio obtained a patent for his “working folding umbrella”[24].
Umbrella are now a consumer product with a large global market. As of 2008, most umbrella worldwide are made in China, mostly in the Guandong, Fujian, and Zhejiang. Umbrella continue to be actively developed. In the United State, as of 2008, the United State Patent Office has registered 3000 active patents on umbrella-related inventions.
In 2005, Gerwin Hoogendoorn, a Dutch industril design student of the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, invented an aerodynamically streamlined storm umbrella (with a similar shape as a stealth plane) which can stand wind force up to 100 km/h and won't turn inside-out like a regular umbrella. This umbrella also equipped with so-called 'eyesavers' which protect others from being accidentally wounded by the tips[25]. Hoogendoorn's storm umbrella was nominated for an won several design award[26] and was featured on Good Morning America[27]. 
References :
 [16] “Umbrella” WIKIPEDIA.
(Avalaible at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umbrella)
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

[17] “Canopy (building)” WIKIPEDIA.
(Avalaible at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canopy_(building)
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

[18] Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2: Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. Page 70
(Avalaible at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umbrella)
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

[19] Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2: Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. Page 70–71.
(Avalaible at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umbrella)
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

[20] Sangster, William, 1808–1888. Umbrellas and Their History. London: Cassell, Petter, and Galpin [1871]. Available online as Gutenberg etext 6674
(Avalaible at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umbrella)
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)
[21] Fierro, Alfred, Histoire et Dictionnaire de Paris, (1996), Robert Laffont, ISBN 2-221-07862-4
(Avalaible at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umbrella)
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

[22] "The Times". 13 February 1788: 3
(Avalaible at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umbrella)
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

[23] Powerhouse Museum. "Prototype umbrella". Powerhouse Museum, Australia.
(Avalaible at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umbrella)
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

[24] About Us, Totes-Isotoner Corporation
(Avalaible at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umbrella)
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

[25]  Dossier SENZ umbrella, Delft University of Technology (WebCite mirror)
(Avalaible at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umbrella)
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

(Avalaible at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umbrella)
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016)

(Avalaible at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umbrella)
(Access Online, Date: 7th April 2016) 

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